This is the model we developed in order to design low intensity psychological interventions for marginalized populations.

Explanatory Model of Depression among Rural Women in Developing Countries



Depression in Developing Countries

Araya, Ricardo, et al. "Treating depression in primary care in low-income women in Santiago, Chile: a randomised controlled trial." The Lancet 361.9362 (2003): 995-1000.
Eaton, Julian, et al. "Scale up of services for mental health in low-income and middle-income countries." The Lancet 378.9802 (2011): 1592-1603.
Kakuma, Ritsuko, et al. "Human resources for mental health care: current situation and strategies for action." The Lancet 378.9803 (2011): 1654-1663.
Lund, Crick, et al. "Poverty and mental disorders: breaking the cycle in low-income and middle-income countries." The Lancet 378.9801 (2011): 1502-1514.
Mirza, Ilyas, and Rachel Jenkins. "Risk factors, prevalence, and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan: systematic review." Bmj 328.7443 (2004): 794.
Patel, Vikram, et al. "Depression in developing countries: lessons from Zimbabwe." Bmj 322.7284 (2001): 482-484.
Patel, Vikram, et al. "Treatment and prevention of mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries." The Lancet 370.9591 (2007): 991-1005.
Patel, Vikram, et al. "Women, poverty and common mental disorders in four restructuring societies." Social science & medicine 49.11 (1999): 1461-1471.
Pereira, Bernadette, et al. "The explanatory models of depression in low income countries: listening to women in India." Journal of affective disorders 102.1 (2007): 209-218.
Saraceno, Benedetto, et al. "Barriers to improvement of mental health services in low-income and middle-income countries." The Lancet 370.9593 (2007): 1164-1174.
Saxena, Shekhar, et al. "Resources for mental health: scarcity, inequity, and inefficiency." The Lancet 370.9590 (2007): 878-889.

Post-Natal Depression

Chandran, Mani, et al. "Post-partum depression in a cohort of women from a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India Incidence and risk factors." The British Journal of Psychiatry 181.6 (2002): 499-504.
Coast, Ernestina, et al. "Poverty and postnatal depression: a systematic mapping of the evidence from low and lower middle income countries." Health & place 18.5 (2012): 1188-1197.
Fuhr, Daniela C., et al. "Contribution of suicide and injuries to pregnancy-related mortality in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis." The Lancet Psychiatry 1.3 (2014): 213-225.
Leis, Julie A., et al. "A systematic review of home-based interventions to prevent and treat postpartum depression." Archives of women's mental health 12.1 (2009): 3-13.
Parsons, Christine E., et al. "Postnatal depression and its effects on child development: a review of evidence from low-and middle-income countries." British medical bulletin 101.1 (2012): 57.
Patel, V., N. DeSouza, and M. Rodrigues. "Postnatal depression and infant growth and development in low income countries: a cohort study from Goa, India." Archives of disease in childhood 88.1 (2003): 34-37.
Rahman, Atif, et al. "Cognitive behaviour therapy-based intervention by community health workers for mothers with depression and their infants in rural Pakistan: a cluster-randomised controlled trial." The Lancet 372.9642 (2008): 902-909.
Rahman, Atif, et al. "Effective treatment of perinatal depression for women in debt and lacking financial empowerment in a low-income country." The British Journal of Psychiatry 201.6 (2012): 451-457.
World Health Organization. „Thinking Healthy: A Manual for Psychosocial Management of Perinatal Depression (WHO generic field-trial version 1.0).“ Geneva, WHO, 2015.Effects of Malnutrition
Benton, David, and Rachael T. Donohoe. "The effects of nutrients on mood." Public health nutrition 2.3a (1999): 403-409.
Hadley, Craig, and Crystal L. Patil. "Food insecurity in rural Tanzania is associated with maternal anxiety and depression." American Journal of Human Biology 18.3 (2006): 359-368.
Kaplan, Bonnie J., et al. "Vitamins, minerals, and mood." Psychological bulletin 133.5 (2007): 747.
Moore, Sophie E. "Nutrition, immunity and the fetal and infant origins of disease hypothesis in developing countries." Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57.02 (1998): 241-247.
Rao, TS Sathyanarayana, et al. "Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses." Indian journal of psychiatry 50.2 (2008): 77.
Weaver, Lesley Jo, and Craig Hadley. "Moving beyond hunger and nutrition: a systematic review of the evidence linking food insecurity and mental health in developing countries." Ecology of Food and Nutrition 48.4 (2009): 263-284.

Domestic Violence

Campbell, Jacquelyn C. "Health consequences of intimate partner violence." The Lancet 359.9314 (2002): 1331-1336.

Economical Difficulties

Banerjee, Abhijit, Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee, and Esther Duflo. Poor economics: A radical rethinking of the way to fight global poverty. PublicAffairs, 2011.
Wadhera, Kiron, and George Koreth. "Empowering rural women: micro-enterprise through achievement motivation." Empowering rural women: micro-enterprise through achievement motivation (2012).
Mental Health in the Developing World
Chambers, Andrew. "Mental illness and the developing world." The guardian 10 (2010).
Patel, Vikram, and Arthur Kleinman. "Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 81 (2003): 609-615.

Low intensity digital mental health interventions

Cuijpers, Pim, et al. "Is guided self-help as effective as face-to-face psychotherapy for depression and anxiety disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies." Psychological medicine 40.12 (2010): 1943-1957.
Bockting, C. L. H., et al. "The potential of low-intensity and online interventions for depression in low-and middle-income countries." Global Mental Health 3 (2016).
Ruzek, J. I., and C. M. Yeager. "Internet and mobile technologies: addressing the mental health of trauma survivors in less resourced communities." Global Mental Health 4 (2017).
Carswell, Kenneth, et al. "Step-by-Step: a new WHO digital mental health intervention for depression." mHealth 4 (2018).
Young, Claire L., et al. "Efficacy of online lifestyle interventions targeting lifestyle behaviour change in depressed populations: a systematic review." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 52.9 (2018): 834-846.

Felicitas Heyne


Psychologist and Co-Founder of Audiopedia.